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Bionanoscience. 2013;3:172-183.

Towards Measuring Stress with Smartphones and Wearable Devices During Workday and Sleep.

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Wearable Computing Lab, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.


Work should be a source of health, pride, and happiness, in the sense of enhancing motivation and strengthening personal development. Healthy and motivated employees perform better and remain loyal to the company for a longer time. But, when the person constantly experiences high workload over a longer period of time and is not able to recover, then work may lead to prolonged negative effects and might cause serious illnesses like chronic stress disease. In this work, we present a solution for assessing the stress experience of people, using features derived from smartphones and wearable chest belts. In particular, we use information from audio, physical activity, and communication data collected during workday and heart rate variability data collected at night during sleep to build multinomial logistic regression models. We evaluate our system in a real work environment and in daily-routine scenarios of 35 employees over a period of 4 months and apply the leave-one-day-out cross-validation method for each user individually to estimate the prediction accuracy. Using only smartphone features, we get an accuracy of 55 %, and using only heart rate variability features, we get an accuracy of 59 %. The combination of all features leads to a rate of 61 % for a three-stress level (low, moderate, and high perceived stress) classification problem.


Heart rate variability; Sleep; Smartphone; Stress; Wearable device

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