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Food Chem. 2015 May 1;174:502-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.040. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China; Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5C9, Canada.
2
Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address: lixihong606@163.com.
3
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5C9, Canada; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, Jiangxi, China.
4
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5C9, Canada; Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
5
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5C9, Canada.
6
Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
7
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5C9, Canada. Electronic address: rong.cao@agr.gc.ca.

Abstract

Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant; Carotenoids; Fatty acids; Lipophilic; Lutein; Quinoa; Tocopherols

PMID:
25529712
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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