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Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Mar;30:96-101. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.012. Epub 2014 Dec 16.

Molecular characterization of HIV-1 infection in Northwest Spain (2009-2013): Investigation of the subtype F outbreak.

Author information

1
National Retrovirus Reference Center, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: dparask@med.uoa.gr.
2
National Retrovirus Reference Center, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
3
National Retrovirus Reference Center, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Institute of Infection & Global Health (IGH), University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
4
Service of Microbiology, INIBIC-Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.
5
Service of Microbiology, Hospital Conxo-CHUS, and Department of Microbiology, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
6
Division of Clinical Virology, INIBIC-Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña, Universidade da Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

HIV-1 subtype B is the predominant one in European regions several, while other subtypes and recombinants are also circulating with high prevalence. A sub-epidemic of subtype F with specific characteristics and low response to treatment has been recently identified in Galicia. In this study we investigated the characteristics of the HIV-1 subtype F sub-epidemic in A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela in Northwest Spain.

METHODS:

420 newly HIV-1 diagnosed patients during 2009-2013 were enrolled in this study. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out using automated subtyping tools and phylogenetic analysis. Molecular epidemiology investigation of subtypes B and F was performed by means of phylogenetic analysis using fast maximum likelihood. Phylodynamic analysis was performed using Bayesian method as implemented in BEAST v1.8.

RESULTS:

Subtype B found to be the predominant (61.2% and 70.4%) followed by subtype F (25.6% and 12.0%) in both areas (A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela, respectively). The latter found to mainly spread among men having sex with men (MSM). The vast majority of subtype F lineages from both areas clustered monophyletically, while subtype B sequences clustered in several tree branches. The exponential growth of subtype F sub-epidemic dated back in 2008 by means of phylodynamic analysis. Most of new infections during 2009-2013 occurred within the subtype F transmission cluster.

CONCLUSIONS:

Subtype F circulates at high prevalence in A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela in Northwest Spain, suggesting that the HIV-1 epidemic in this region has distinct characteristics to the rest of Spain. Subtype F has being spreading among MSM and is currently the most actively spreading network. The single cluster spread of this local sub-epidemic might provide an explanation for the distinct characteristics and the low response to antiretroviral treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Galicia; HIV-1; Local sub-epidemic; Molecular epidemiology; Spain; Subtype F

PMID:
25527396
DOI:
10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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