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Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 Dec 10;10:2331-7. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S74952. eCollection 2014.

Parkinson's disease-associated melanin steal.

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Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA.
Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA.
Cole Center for Healing, Cincinnati, OH, USA.


Urinary dopamine fluctuations in the competitive inhibition state were first documented in 2009. At that time, it was noted that progressively higher daily dosing values of L-tyrosine decreased the magnitude of these fluctuations. While extensive statistical analysis has been performed by the authors since 2004, it was not until 2012 that a plausible explanation was formulated. In the process, correlations with L-tyrosine administration and the on/off effect of Parkinson's disease were defined. This paper documents the current knowledge with regard to the management of retrograde phase 1 dopamine fluctuations and investigates the hypothesis that they are caused by a melanin steal phenomenon.


L-dopa; dopamine; fluctuations; melanocyte

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