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J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jan;27(1):41-6. doi: 10.1177/1040638714563064.

Comparison of culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and "Brachyspira hampsonii" in pig feces.

Author information

1
Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Wilberts), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IAVeterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine (Warneke, Bower, Kinyon, Burrough), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
2
Departments of Veterinary Pathology (Wilberts), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IAVeterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine (Warneke, Bower, Kinyon, Burrough), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA burrough@iastate.edu.

Abstract

Swine dysentery is characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea and can occur following infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or "Brachyspira hampsonii ". A definitive diagnosis is often based on the isolation of strongly beta-hemolytic spirochetes from selective culture or by the application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays directly to feces. While culture is highly sensitive, it typically requires 6 or more days to complete, and PCR, although rapid, can be limited by fecal inhibition. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been described in formalin-fixed tissues; however, completion requires approximately 2 days. Because of the time constraints of available assays, a same-day FISH assay was developed to detect B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii " in pig feces using previously described oligonucleotide probes Hyo1210 and Hamp1210 for B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii", respectively. In situ hybridization was simultaneously compared with culture and PCR on feces spiked with progressive dilutions of spirochetes to determine the threshold of detection for each assay at 0 and 48 hr. The PCR assay on fresh feces and FISH on formalin-fixed feces had similar levels of detection. Culture was the most sensitive method, detecting the target spirochetes at least 2 log-dilutions less when compared to other assays 48 hr after sample preparation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also effectively detected both target species in formalin-fixed feces from inoculated pigs as part of a previous experiment. Accordingly, FISH on formalin-fixed feces from clinically affected pigs can provide same-day identification and preliminary speciation of spirochetes associated with swine dysentery in North America.

KEYWORDS:

Brachyspira; fluorescent in situ hybridization; swine dysentery

PMID:
25525136
DOI:
10.1177/1040638714563064
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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