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Insights Imaging. 2015 Feb;6(1):85-96. doi: 10.1007/s13244-014-0370-0. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: a pictorial review.

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1
Grupo Hospitalario Quirón, Carretera de Leioa-Unbe, 33 bis, 48950, Erandio, Vizcaya, Spain, etxanojon@gmail.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To present the most important characteristics of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) arising in different locations of the body with histological correlation.

METHODS:

To review the symptoms and main radiological findings of IMTs. On ultrasonography (US), these tumours can appear as hypoechoic or hyperechoic masses and a variable Doppler appearance with increased vascularity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) are the most used imaging tools in their evaluation. On contrast-enhanced CT, IMTs can appear as homogeneous or heterogeneous lesions, with variable enhancement on delayed acquisitions due to fibrosis. These findings are also present on gadolinium contrast-enhanced MR. On T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences, IMTs usually show low signal intensity reflecting also the presence of fibrotic tissue.

RESULTS:

To show the main clinical symptoms and radiological features of IMTs in different locations: head and neck, lung, genitourinary, hepatic, splenic, gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric, muskuloskeletal.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although IMTs in some organs are not uncommon, they are not usually included in the differential diagnosis of masses. Their radiological features suggest malignant neoplasms, whereas they are not. Consequently, this is an underdiagnosed entity and only after an histological exam could a definitive diagnosis be achieved.

TEACHING POINTS:

• Their radiological features suggest malignant neoplasms, whereas they are not • CT and MR imaging are the most used tools in their evaluation • IMT is an underdiagnosed entity • The definitive diagnosis is only after histological exam.

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