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Diabetes Care. 2015 Mar;38(3):476-81. doi: 10.2337/dc14-1952. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Prevalence of detectable C-Peptide according to age at diagnosis and duration of type 1 diabetes.

Author information

1
Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA t1dstats@jaeb.org.
2
Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL.
3
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
4
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.
5
School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.
6
Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at Columbia University, New York, NY.
7
Rocky Mountain Diabetes and Osteoporosis Center, Idaho Falls, ID.
8
Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center, Portland, OR.
9
Northwest Lipid Metabolism and Diabetes Research Laboratories, Seattle, WA.
10
Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
11
Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

It is generally accepted that complete β-cell destruction eventually occurs in individuals with type 1 diabetes, which has implications for treatment approaches and insurance coverage. The frequency of residual insulin secretion in a large cohort of individuals at varying ages of diagnosis and type 1 diabetes duration is unknown.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

The frequency of residual insulin secretion was determined by measurement of nonfasting serum C-peptide concentration in 919 individuals with type 1 diabetes according to prespecified groups based on age at diagnosis and duration of disease (from 3 to 81 years' duration). Stimulated C-peptide was measured in those with detectable nonfasting values and a group of those with undetectable values as control.

RESULTS:

The overall frequency of detectable nonfasting C-peptide was 29%, decreasing with time from diagnosis regardless of age at diagnosis. In all duration groups, the frequency of C-peptide was higher with diagnosis age >18 years compared with ≤18 years. Nineteen percent of those with undetectable nonfasting C-peptide were C-peptide positive upon stimulation testing.

CONCLUSIONS:

The American Diabetes Association's definition of type 1 diabetes as "usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency" results in clinicians often considering the presence of residual insulin secretion as unexpected in this population. However, our data suggest that residual secretion is present in almost one out of three individuals 3 or more years from type 1 diabetes diagnosis. The frequency of residual C-peptide decreases with time from diagnosis regardless of age at diagnosis, yet at all durations of disease, diagnosis during adulthood is associated with greater frequency and higher values of C-peptide.

PMID:
25519448
DOI:
10.2337/dc14-1952
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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