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Malar J. 2014 Dec 17;13:507. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-507.

Enantioselective metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6.

Author information

1
The National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. lwalker@olemiss.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Primaquine, currently the only approved drug for the treatment and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria, is still used as a racemic mixture. Clinical use of primaquine has been limited due to haemolytic toxicity in individuals with genetic deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Earlier studies have linked its therapeutic effects to CYP2D6-generated metabolites. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differential generation of the CYP2D6 metabolites by racemic primaquine and its individual enantiomers.

METHODS:

Stable isotope 13C-labelled primaquine and its two enantiomers were incubated with recombinant cytochrome-P450 supersomes containing CYP2D6 under optimized conditions. Metabolite identification and time-point quantitative analysis were performed using LC-MS/MS. UHPLC retention time, twin peaks with a mass difference of 6, MS-MS fragmentation pattern, and relative peak area with respect to parent compound were used for phenotyping and quantitative analysis of metabolites.

RESULTS:

The rate of metabolism of (+)-(S)-primaquine was significantly higher (50% depletion of 20 μM in 120 min) compared to (-)-(R)-primaquine (30% depletion) when incubated with CYP2D6. The estimated Vmax (μmol/min/mg) were 0.75, 0.98 and 0.42, with Km (μM) of 24.2, 33.1 and 21.6 for (±)-primaquine, (+)-primaquine and (-)-primaquine, respectively. Three stable mono-hydroxylated metabolites, namely, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxyprimaquine (2-OH-PQ, 3-OH-PQ, and 4-OH-PQ), were identified and quantified. 2-OH-PQ was preferentially formed from (+)-primaquine in a ratio of 4:1 compared to (-)-primaquine. The racemic (±)-primaquine showed a pattern similar to the (-)-primaquine; 2-OH-PQ accounted for about 15-17% of total CYP2D6-mediated conversion of (+)-primaquine. In contrast, 4-OH-PQ was preferentially formed with (-)-primaquine (5:1), accounting for 22% of the total (-)-primaquine conversion. 3-OH-PQ was generated from both enantiomers and racemate. 5-hydroxyprimaquine was unstable. Its orthoquinone degradation product (twice as abundant in (+)-primaquine compared to (-)-primaquine) was identified and accounted for 18-20% of the CYP2D6-mediated conversion of (+)-primaquine. Other minor metabolites included dihydroxyprimaquine species, two quinone-imine products of dihydroxylated primaquine, and a primaquine terminal alcohol with variable generation from the individual enantiomers.

CONCLUSION:

The metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6 and the generation of its metabolites display enantio-selectivity regarding formation of hydroxylated product profiles. This may partly explain differential pharmacologic and toxicologic properties of primaquine enantiomers.

PMID:
25518709
PMCID:
PMC4301821
DOI:
10.1186/1475-2875-13-507
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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