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J Toxicol Pathol. 2014;27(3-4 Suppl):1S-107S. doi: 10.1293/tox.27.1S.

Nonproliferative and proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse female reproductive system.

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National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
Roger Alison Ltd, Pathology Consultancy Services, Caerfyrddin Fach, Cilcennin, Lampeter, SA48 8RN, United Kingdom.
Bayer Pharma AG, Wuppertal, Germany.
Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Novartis, East Hanover, New Jersey, USA.
AbbVie, Inc., North Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Fresenius Kabi Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany.
GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire, SG12 ODP, United Kingdom.
Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Grenzacher Strasse 124, 4070 Basel, Switzerland.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA.
Regan Path/Tox Services, Ashland, Ohio, USA.
InSight Pathology BV, Chopinlaan 6, Oss, The Netherlands.
AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom (Retired).
GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.
National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.


The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project ( is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet ( Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.


cervix; diagnostic pathology; female reproductive; nomenclature; ovary; uterus; vagina

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