Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015 Apr;54(4):423-34. doi: 10.1007/s40262-014-0213-7.

Influence of sex and race on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in stable African American and Caucasian renal transplant recipients.

Author information

Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Immunosuppressive Pharmacology Research Program, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, 701 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA,



No evaluation of sex and race influences on mycophenolic acid (MPA) pharmacokinetics and adverse effects (AEs) during enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (ECMPS) and tacrolimus immunosuppression are available. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of sex and race on MPA and MPA glucuronide (MPAG) pharmacokinetics in stable renal transplant recipients receiving ECMPS and tacrolimus


The pharmacokinetics of MPA and MPAG and their associated gastrointestinal AEs were investigated in 67 stable renal transplant recipients: 22 African American males (AAMs), 13 African American females (AAFs), 16 Caucasian males (CMs), and 16 Caucasian females (CFs) receiving ECMPS and tacrolimus. A validated gastrointestinal AE rating included diarrhea, dyspepsia, vomiting, and acid-suppressive therapy was completed. Apparent clearance, clearance normalized to body mass index (BMI), area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 12 h (AUC12) and dose-normalized AUC12 (AUC*) were determined using a statistical model that incorporated gastrointestinal AE and clinical covariates.


Males had more rapid apparent MPA clearance (CMs 13.8 ± 6.27 L/h vs. AAMs 10.2 ± 3.73 L/h) than females (CFs 8.70 ± 3.33 L/h and AAFs 9.71 ± 3.94 L/h; p = 0.014) with a race-sex interaction (p = 0.043). Sex differences were observed in MPA clearance/BMI (p = 0.033) and AUC* (p = 0.033). MPA AUC12 was greater than 60 mg·h/L in 57 % of renal transplant recipients (RTR) with 71 % of patients demonstrating gastrointestinal AEs and a higher score noted in females. In all patients, females exhibited 1.40-fold increased gastrointestinal AE scores compared with males (p = 0.024). Race (p = 0.044) and sex (p = 0.005) differences were evident with greater MPAG AUC12 in AAFs and CFs.


Sex and race differences were evident, with females having slower MPA clearance, higher MPAG AUC12, and more severe gastrointestinal AEs. These findings suggest sex and race should be considered during MPA immunosuppression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center