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Vaccine. 2015 Jun 17;33(27):3073-83. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.004. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

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Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X5. Electronic address:
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8.


The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines.


Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis); HIV-1/SIV vaccine; Non-human primates

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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