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Mol Cell Biochem. 1989 Aug 15;89(1):73-85.

Hominoid triosephosphate isomerase: regulation of expression of the proliferation specific isozyme.

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Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0618.


Three primary isoforms of the dimeric glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; EC, are detected in proliferating human cells. The electrophoretically separable isoforms result from the three possible combinations of constitutive subunits and subunits expressed only in proliferating cells. Only a single primary isoform is observed in quiescent cells. The two subunits, which differ by covalent modification (s), are product of the single structural locus for this enzyme. Expression of the proliferation specific subunit (TPI-2) is detected within 6-10 hr following mitogen stimulation of quiescent human cells, requires RNA synthesis and is inhibited by agents which inhibit interleukin 2 expression or function. Only the constitutive subunit (TPI-1) is detected in proliferating cells from nonhominoid primate species. A single class of TPI mRNA, which is increased greater than 10 fold following stimulation of quiescent cells, is detected on northern blot analysis and S1 nuclease digestion analysis of RNA from quiescent and proliferating human cells. It is similar in size to the TPI mRNA from proliferating cells of the African green monkey, a primate species not expressing TPI-2. Comparison of the structure of the TPI gene from rhesus monkey (nonexpressing species) to the gene from expressing species does not suggest a mechanism for generating TPI-2. Thus, the regulation of the expression of the hominoid restricted, proliferation specific subunit of TPI has been further defined, although the mechanism for generating TPI-2 remains elusive.

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