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J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014 Dec 15;8(12):1511-7. doi: 10.3855/jidc.5514.

Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn patients, Iran.

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School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Burns are the most serious forms of trauma and a major cause of mortality worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common pathogens of burn wound infections; treatment has faced serious problems due to antibiotic resistance in these strains. Biofilm formation, which increases antibiotic resistance capabilities and is considered to be a virulence factor, also causes treatment failure and recurrent staphylococcal infections in burn patients.


A total of 135 pus/wound swabs were collected; S. aureus was identified by confirmatory tests. The icaA/D and mecA genes were detected in DNA extracts by polymerase chain reaction assay separately. To determine the prevalence of biofilm formation, a modified Congo red agar and the microtiter plate method were used. Investigation of antibiotic resistance was performed using the disk diffusion method.


S. aureus (48.87%) was identified in 65 (48.87%) samples, of which 40 (61.53%) were confirmed to be MRSA. Among MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, 97.5% and 60% produced biofilm, respectively. Resistance of MRSA isolates to amikacin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, mupirocin, rifampin, tetracycline, and tobramycin was 64.1%, 76.92%, 51.28%, 87.18%, 71.8%, 10.26%, 5.13%, 89.74%, and 61.54%, respectively. All MRSA and MSSA isolates were susceptible to fusidic acid, linezolid, teicoplanin, tigecycline, and vancomycin.


The high prevalence of biofilm-producing, drug-resistant S. aureus isolates in our study suggests that epidemiological studies on the characteristics of common strains found in burn centers and a definition of their antibiotic resistance pattern would be helpful for therapeutic decisions.

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