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Gut. 2015 Nov;64(11):1744-54. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307913. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Effects of targeted delivery of propionate to the human colon on appetite regulation, body weight maintenance and adiposity in overweight adults.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
2
Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK Diabetes and Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.
3
Stable Isotope Biochemistry Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
4
Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
5
School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
6
Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
7
Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Research Group, MRC Clinical Science Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
8
Imperial Clinical Trials Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
9
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
10
Leatherhead Food Research, Randall's Road Leatherhead, Surrey, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and reduce energy intake and weight gain in overweight adults.

DESIGN:

To investigate whether propionate promotes PYY and GLP-1 secretion, a primary cultured human colonic cell model was developed. To deliver propionate specifically to the colon, we developed a novel inulin-propionate ester. An acute randomised, controlled cross-over study was used to assess the effects of this inulin-propionate ester on energy intake and plasma PYY and GLP-1 concentrations. The long-term effects of inulin-propionate ester on weight gain were subsequently assessed in a randomised, controlled 24-week study involving 60 overweight adults.

RESULTS:

Propionate significantly stimulated the release of PYY and GLP-1 from human colonic cells. Acute ingestion of 10 g inulin-propionate ester significantly increased postprandial plasma PYY and GLP-1 and reduced energy intake. Over 24 weeks, 10 g/day inulin-propionate ester supplementation significantly reduced weight gain, intra-abdominal adipose tissue distribution, intrahepatocellular lipid content and prevented the deterioration in insulin sensitivity observed in the inulin-control group.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data demonstrate for the first time that increasing colonic propionate prevents weight gain in overweight adult humans.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

NCT00750438.

KEYWORDS:

APPETITE; COLONIC FERMENTATION; GUT HORMONES; NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTATION; OBESITY

PMID:
25500202
PMCID:
PMC4680171
DOI:
10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307913
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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