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J Dairy Res. 2015 May;82(2):135-42. doi: 10.1017/S0022029914000739. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Heat-induced changes in the properties of modified skim milks with different casein to whey protein ratios.

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School of Chemistry,Monash University,Clayton,VIC 3800,Australia.
CSIRO Food & Nutrition Flagship,671,Sneydes Road,Werribee VIC 3030,Australia.


The heat-induced changes in pH, Ca activity and viscosity after heating at 90 °C for 10 min of five modified skim milks were studied as a function of the initial pH of the milks at 25 °C. The milks had (i) different ratios of casein : whey protein (0.03, 1.74, 3.97, 5.27 and 7.25), (ii) the same total solids concentration (9% w/w) and (iii) prior to the adjustment of the pH, similar values of pH (6.67-6.74), concentration of serum calcium, and calcium activity, suggesting that the sera have similar mineral composition. The total protein concentrations of the milks differ (2.8-4.0%, w/w). The pH decrease in situ upon heating from 25-90 °C was similar for all the modified skim milks with the same starting pH, suggesting that the pH changes to milk on heating were primarily mediated by the initial mineral composition of the serum and were unaffected by the casein : whey protein ratio or the total protein content of the milk. The heat-induced changes in pH and calcium activity were largely reversible on cooling. The two milks with the lowest ratios of casein to whey protein gelled on heating to 90 °C for 10 min and cooling to 25 °C when the pH was adjusted to pH = 6.2 prior to heating. The viscosities of all other milks with casein to whey protein ratio of 3.97, 5.27 and 7.25 and/or pH ≥6.7 prior to heating did not change significantly. The effect of casein : whey protein ratio and the pH are the dominant factors in controlling the susceptibility to thickening of the milks on heating in this study.


calcium activity

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