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J Dairy Sci. 2015 Feb;98(2):759-64. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8747. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

Author information

1
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Veterinária, Campus UFV, 36570 900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
2
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Veterinária, Campus UFV, 36570 900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Campus Governador Valadares, 35020 220, Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil.
3
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Veterinária, Campus UFV, 36570 900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address: nero@ufv.br.

Abstract

Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.

KEYWORDS:

Pseudomonas; goat milk; proteolysis; spoilage

PMID:
25497792
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2014-8747
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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