Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jan;108(1):75-83. doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2014.10.003. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

Author information

1
Cardiology Department, CHU de Dijon, Dijon, France.
2
Cardiology Department, CHU de Dijon, Dijon, France; Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Physiopathology and Pharmacology, INSERM U866, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
3
Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Physiopathology and Pharmacology, INSERM U866, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
4
Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Physiopathology and Pharmacology, INSERM U866, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France. Electronic address: Marianne.zeller@u-bourgogne.fr.

Abstract

Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular effects; Dopage; Doping; Effets cardiovasculaires; Nicotine; Smokeless tobacco; Sport; Sports; Tabac non fumé

PMID:
25497687
DOI:
10.1016/j.acvd.2014.10.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center