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Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 Feb;16(2):159-77. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2015.993381. Epub 2014 Dec 13.

Antimicrobial resistance: impact on clinical and economic outcomes and the need for new antimicrobials.

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Hartford Hospital, Center for Anti-infective Research and Development , 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 , USA +1 860 972 3941 ; +1 860 545 3992 ;



Antimicrobial resistance is a well-recognized global threat; thus, the development of strong infection control policies coupled with antimicrobial stewardship strategies and new therapies is required to reverse this process. In its 2013 report on antimicrobial resistance, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention focused on this problem while presenting estimated annual rates of infections with antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their related mortality rates. Whereas some resistant pathogens were considered less threatening, others such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were associated with higher mortality rates owing to limited treatment options.


An overview of the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, focusing on risk factors for acquisition, clinical and economic outcomes, as well as current treatment options. Strategies to optimize antimicrobial therapy with currently available agents, in addition to newly developed antimicrobials are also discussed.


The emergence of pathogens with a variety of resistance mechanisms has intensified the challenges associated with infection control and treatment strategies. Therefore, prudent use of currently available antimicrobial agents, as well as implementing measures to limit spread of resistance is paramount. Although several new antimicrobials have been recently approved or are in the pipeline showing promise in the battle against resistance, the appropriate use of these agents is required as the true benefits of these treatments are to be recognized in the clinical care setting.


Gram-negative; Gram-positive; antimicrobials; multidrug resistance

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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