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AIDS. 2014 Nov 28;28(18):2701-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000497.

Efficacy and safety of three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
aDepartment of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences bInfectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda cDepartment of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA dDepartment of Pediatrics, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants until breastfeeding ends and HIV infection has been excluded. Extending prophylaxis with a focus on preventing malaria may be beneficial in high transmission areas. We investigated three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed children.

DESIGN:

An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:

Tororo, Uganda, a rural area with intense, year-round, malaria transmission.

PARTICIPANTS:

Two hundred infants aged 4-5 months enrolled and 186 randomized after cessation of breastfeeding and confirmed to be HIV uninfected (median 10 months of age).

INTERVENTION:

No chemoprevention, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine given from randomization to 24 months of age.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The primary outcome was the incidence of malaria during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hospitalization, diarrhoeal illness, or respiratory tract infection; prevalence of anaemia and asymptomatic parasitemia; measures of safety; and incidence of malaria over 1 year after the intervention was stopped.

RESULTS:

During the intervention, the incidence of malaria in the no chemoprevention group was 6.28 episodes per person-year at risk. Protective efficacy was 69% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 53-80, P < 0.001] for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, 49% (95% CI 23-66, P = 0.001) for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 9% for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (95% CI -35 to 38, P = 0.65). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes, with the exception of a lower prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia in the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm.

CONCLUSION:

Monthly chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in malaria in young HIV-exposed children.

PMID:
25493596
PMCID:
PMC4487368
DOI:
10.1097/QAD.0000000000000497
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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