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Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Dec 8;15(12):22706-22727.

The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain. mjgrande@ujaen.es.
2
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain. rppulido@ujaen.es.
3
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain. mlaguayo@ujaen.es.
4
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain. agalvez@ujaen.es.
5
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain. rlucas@ujaen.es.

Abstract

Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica) and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria). The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure.

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