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Stud Mycol. 2014 Jun;78:141-73. doi: 10.1016/j.simyco.2014.07.004.

Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

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CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, NL-3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Korean Agricultural Culture Collection, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon, South Korea.
Department of Botany, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, C70 Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, 532 SZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Institute of Sciences of Food Production National Research Council, 70126 Bari, Italy.
Biodiversity (Mycology), Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary.
Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8673, Japan.
Department of Systems Biology, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.


Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.


Fungal identification; Media; Nomenclature; Phylogeny

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