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Health Educ Res. 2015 Feb;30(1):67-80. doi: 10.1093/her/cyu074. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada.

Author information

1
Nigel Gray Fellowship Group, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA, Department of Health Promotion, Education & Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8BB, UK, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada and Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA Lin.Li@cancervic.org.au.
2
Nigel Gray Fellowship Group, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA, Department of Health Promotion, Education & Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8BB, UK, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada and Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
3
Nigel Gray Fellowship Group, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA, Department of Health Promotion, Education & Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8BB, UK, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada and Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA Nigel Gray Fellowship Group, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA, Department of Health Promotion, Education & Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8BB, UK, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada and Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Abstract

This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK warnings was higher than the Australian and Canadian pictorial warnings, this did not lead to greater levels of cognitive reactions, forgoing or avoiding. There was no difference in ratings between the Australian and UK warnings for cognitive responses and forgoing, but the Canadian warnings were responded to more strongly. Avoidance of the Australian warnings was greater than to UK ones, but less than to the Canadian warnings. The impact of warnings declined over time in all three countries. Declines were comparable between Australia and the United Kingdom on all measures except avoiding, where Australia had a greater rate of decline; and for salience where the decline was slower in Canada. Having two rotating sets of warnings does not appear to reduce wear-out over a single set of warnings. Warning size may be more important than warning type in preventing wear-out, although both probably contribute interactively.

PMID:
25492056
PMCID:
PMC4296892
DOI:
10.1093/her/cyu074
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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