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PLoS One. 2014 Dec 9;9(12):e114881. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114881. eCollection 2014.

High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.
2
Graduate Group in Nutritional Biology and Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, United States of America; Obesity & Metabolism Research Unit, USDA-ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, California, United States of America.
3
Graduate Group in Nutritional Biology and Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, United States of America.

Abstract

Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control) or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2) for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients.

PMID:
25490712
PMCID:
PMC4260945
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0114881
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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