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Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015 Mar;11(3):182-90. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.210. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Antibiotics in early life and obesity.

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Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, VA Medical Centre, Room 6026W, 423 East 23rd Street, New York, NY 10010, USA.


The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition, and consequently the metabolic activity of the microbiota, can affect the body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth. These effects are consistent with the role of the microbiota during development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repression and promotion of growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending the susceptibility of the microbiota to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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