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J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015 Nov-Dec;54(6):1146-50. doi: 10.1053/j.jfas.2014.09.006. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Reconstructed With Achilles Tendon Allograft and Xenograft Combination.

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Associate Clinical Professor, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, and Orthopedic Institute of Central Jersey, Manasquan, NJ. Electronic address:
Orthopaedic Surgery Resident, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ.


More than 20% of acute Achilles tendon injuries are misdiagnosed, leading to chronic or neglected ruptures. Some controversy exists regarding how to best manage an acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, a general consensus has been reached that chronic rupture with ≥3 cm of separation is associated with functional morbidity and, therefore, should be managed operatively. It has been demonstrated that the functional outcomes of surgically treated Achilles ruptures are superior to the nonoperative outcomes in a chronic setting. In the present report, we reviewed 4 patients with chronic Achilles tendon ruptures that were successfully treated with an Achilles tendon interposition allograft and simultaneous augmentation with a xenograft. The median duration of rupture was 11 (range 8 to 16) weeks, the median gap between the proximal and distal segments of the tendon was 4.75 (range 3.5 to 6) cm, and the patients were able to return pain-free to all preinjury activities at a median of 14.5 (range 13.8 to 15.5) weeks, without the need for tendon transfer, lengthening, or additional intervention. The median duration of follow up was 37.25 (range 15.25 to 51.5) months, at which point the mean Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument core scale score was 97 ± 1 (mean normative score 53 ± 1), and the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument shoe comfort core scale score was 100 ± 0 (mean normative score 59 ± 0). The combined Achilles allograft plus xenograft augmentation technique appears to be a reasonable option for the surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture.


allograft; ankle; biotransplantation; injury; tendon repair; xenograft

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