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Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Jun;65(6):860-9. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.10.018. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Risk factors for acute kidney injury in older adults with critical illness: a retrospective cohort study.

Author information

1
The Center for Critical Care Nephology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA.
2
The Center for Critical Care Nephology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; CRISMA (Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness) Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA.
3
The Center for Critical Care Nephology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; CRISMA (Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness) Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
4
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA.
5
Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
6
The Center for Critical Care Nephology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; CRISMA (Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness) Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address: kellumja@ccm.upmc.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in older adults has not been evaluated systematically. We sought to delineate the determinants of risk for AKI in older compared with younger adults.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in July 2000 to September 2008.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

We identified all adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit (n=45,655) in a large tertiary-care university hospital system. We excluded patients receiving dialysis or a kidney transplant prior to hospital admission and patients with baseline creatinine levels ≥ 4mg/dL, liver transplantation, indeterminate AKI status, or unknown age, leaving 39,938 patients.

PREDICTOR:

We collected data for multiple susceptibilities and exposures, including age, sex, race, body mass, comorbid conditions, severity of illness, baseline kidney function, sepsis, and shock.

OUTCOMES:

We defined AKI according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We examined susceptibilities and exposures across age strata for impact on the development of AKI.

MEASUREMENTS:

We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of AKI across age groups.

RESULTS:

25,230 (63.2%) patients were 55 years or older. Overall, 25,120 (62.9%) patients developed AKI (69.2% aged ≥55 years). Examples of risk factors for AKI in the oldest age category (≥75 years) were drugs (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories), history of hypertension (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.25), and sepsis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.68-2.67). Fewer variables remained predictive of AKI as age increased and the model for older patients was less predictive (P<0.001). For the age categories 18 to 54, 55 to 64, 65 to 74, and 75 years or older, AUCs were 0.744 (95% CI, 0.735-0.752), 0.714 (95% CI, 0.702-0.726), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.693-0.718), and 0.673 (95% CI, 0.661-0.685), respectively.

LIMITATIONS:

Analysis may not apply to non-intensive care unit patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

The likelihood of developing AKI increases with age; however, the same variables are less predictive for AKI as age increases. Efforts to quantify risk for AKI may be more difficult in older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury (AKI); age; chronic kidney disease (CKD); critical illness; elderly; intensive care unit (ICU); older; risk; risk prediction; susceptibilities and exposures

PMID:
25488106
PMCID:
PMC4442750
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.10.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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