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Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015 Feb;13(2):209-31. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2015.991717. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Evaluation and management of recurrent urinary tract infections in children: state of the art.

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Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, P.O. box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Sindh, Pakistan.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent an important cause of febrile illness in young children and can lead to renal scarring and kidney failure. However, diagnosis and treatment of recurrent UTI in children is an area of some controversy. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and European Society of Paediatric Radiology differ from each other in terms of the diagnostic algorithm to be followed. Treatment of vesicoureteral reflux and antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of recurrent UTI are also areas of considerable debate. In this review, we collate and appraise recently published literature in order to formulate evidence-based guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent UTI in children.


antibiotic prophylaxis; cystitis; pyelonephritis; urinary tract anomalies; urinary tract infection; vesicoureteral reflux

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