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Chemosphere. 2015 Jan;119:1399-1405. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.038.

Changes in soil toxicity by phosphate-aided soil washing: effect of soil characteristics, chemical forms of arsenic, and cations in washing solutions.

Author information

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea; Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ejho001@snu.ac.kr.
2
Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: dlawlsdn@snu.ac.kr.
3
Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: deliyg22@snu.ac.kr.
4
Water/Environment Team, Civil Engineering Division, Samsung C&T Corporation, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yj777.kim@samsung.com.
5
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea; Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kpnam@snu.ac.kr.

Abstract

This study was set to investigate the changes in the toxicity of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils after washing with phosphate solutions. The soil samples collected from two locations (A: rice paddy and B: forest land) of a former smelter site were contaminated with a similar level of As. Soil washing (0.5 M phosphate solution for 2 h) removed 24.5% As, on average, in soil from both locations. Regardless of soil washing, Location A soil toxicities, determined using Microtox, were greater than that of Location B and this could be largely attributed to different soil particle size distribution. With soils from both locations, the changes in As chemical forms resulted in either similar or greater toxicities after washing. This emphasizes the importance of considering ecotoxicological aspects, which are likely to differ depending on soil particle size distribution and changes in As chemical forms, in addition to the total concentration based remedial goals, in producing ecotoxicologically-sound soils for reuse. In addition, calcium phosphate used as the washing solution seemed to contribute more on the toxic effects of the washed soils than potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to use potassium or ammonium phosphate than calcium phosphate for phosphate-aided soil washing of the As-contaminated soils.

KEYWORDS:

Arsenic; Microtox; Phosphate soil washing; Soil characteristics; Toxicity

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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