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Parasitol Int. 2015 Apr;64(2):161-6. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2014.11.007. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka 020-8550, Japan; National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka 020-8550, Japan.
3
Transboundary Animal Diseases Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan; National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.
4
Yaeyama Livestock Hygiene Service Center, 1-2 Miyara, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0243, Japan.
5
Tamayose Veterinary Hospital, 204-332 Maezato, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0002, Japan.
6
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.
7
Honbetsu Veterinary Clinical Center, Tokachi Agricultural Mutual Aid Association, Honbetsu 089-3324, Japan.
8
Hokubu Veterinary Clinical Center, Tokachi Agricultural Mutual Aid Association, Asyoro 089-3708, Japan.
9
Yubetsu Herd Management Service, Baro, Yubetsu-cho, Hokkaido 093-0731, Japan.
10
Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.
11
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan. Electronic address: nisikawa@obihiro.ac.jp.

Abstract

Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

KEYWORDS:

Cryptosporidium parvum; GP60; Immunochromatography test; Japan; SSUrRNA

PMID:
25481361
DOI:
10.1016/j.parint.2014.11.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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