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Bone Joint Res. 2014 Dec;3(12):328-34. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.312.2000321.

Dose- and time-dependent effects of triamcinolone acetonide on human rotator cuff-derived cells.

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Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 6500017, Japan.



To investigate the appropriate dose and interval for the administration of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in treating tendinopathy to avoid adverse effects such as tendon degeneration and rupture.


Human rotator cuff-derived cells were cultured using three media: regular medium (control), regular medium with 0.1 mg/mL of TA (low TA group), and with 1.0 mg/mL of TA (high TA group). The cell morphology, apoptosis, and viability were assessed at designated time points.


In the low TA group, the cells became flattened and polygonal at seven days then returned to normal at 21 days. The cell apoptosis ratio and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 increased, and viability was reduced in the low and high groups at seven days. In the low TA group, apoptosis and viability returned to normal at 21 days, however, in the high TA group, the cell morphology, apoptosis ratio, caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 and viability did not return by day 21. Re-administration was performed in the low TA group at 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals, and cell viability did not return to the control level at the 7- and 14-day intervals.


A 0.1 mg/mL dose of TA temporarily decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, which was recovered at 21 days, however, 1 mg/mL of TA caused irreversible damage to cell morphology and viability. An interval > three weeks was needed to safely re-administer TA. These findings may help determine the appropriate dose and interval for TA injection therapy. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:328-34.


Triamcinolone acetonide; Rotator cuff-derived cells; Dose; Interval

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