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Adv Parasitol. 2014;86:81-108. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800869-0.00004-4.

Surveillance and response to drive the national malaria elimination program.

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National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, MOH; WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
World Health Organization, China Representative Office, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Beijing, People's Republic of China; Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.


The national action plan for malaria elimination in China (2010-2020) was issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health along with other 13 ministries and commissions in 2010. The ultimate goal of the national action plan was to eliminate local transmission of malaria by the end of 2020. Surveillance and response are the most important components driving the whole process of the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP), under the technical guidance used in NMEP. This chapter introduces the evolution of the surveillance from the control to the elimination stages and the current structure of national surveillance system in China. When the NMEP launched, both routine surveillance and sentinel surveillance played critical role in monitoring the process of NMEP. In addition, the current response strategy of NMEP was also reviewed, including the generally developed "1-3-7 Strategy". More effective and sensitive risk assessment tools were introduced, which cannot only predict the trends of malaria, but also are important for the design and adjustment of the surveillance and response systems in the malaria elimination stage. Therefore, this review presents the landscape of malaria surveillance and response in China as well as their contribution to the NMEP, with a focus on activities for early detection of malaria cases, timely control of malaria foci and epidemics, and risk prediction. Furthermore, challenges and recommendations for accelerating NMEP through surveillance are put forward.


Case management; Drug resistance; Imported cases; National malaria elimination program; Outbreaks; Response; Risk assessment; Sentinel surveillance; Strategy; Surveillance system

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