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Adv Microb Physiol. 2014;65:257-335. doi: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2014.08.005. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Physiological adaptations of key oral bacteria.

Author information

1
Integrated BioSciences Group, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
2
Integrated BioSciences Group, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address: g.stafford@sheffield.ac.uk.

Abstract

Oral colonising bacteria are highly adapted to the various environmental niches harboured within the mouth, whether that means while contributing to one of the major oral diseases of caries, pulp infections, or gingival/periodontal disease or as part of a commensal lifestyle. Key to these infections is the ability to adhere to surfaces via a range of specialised adhesins targeted at both salivary and epithelial proteins, their glycans and to form biofilm. They must also resist the various physical stressors they are subjected to, including pH and oxidative stress. Possibly most strikingly, they have developed the ability to harvest both nutrient sources provided by the diet and those derived from the host, such as protein and surface glycans. We have attempted to review recent developments that have revealed much about the molecular mechanisms at work in shaping the physiology of oral bacteria and how we might use this information to design and implement new treatment strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Adhesins; Biofilm; Caries; Endodontic disease; Glycans; Glycosidases; Periodontitis; Proteolysis; Saliva

PMID:
25476768
DOI:
10.1016/bs.ampbs.2014.08.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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