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Genes Genet Syst. 2014;89(3):121-31.

QTL analysis of genetic loci affecting domestication-related spike characters in common wheat.

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Kihara Institute for Biological Research and Department of Life and Environmental System Science, Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University.


Domestication-related changes that govern a spike morphology suitable for seed harvesting in cereals have resulted from mutation and selection of the genes. A synthetic hexaploid wheat (S-6214, genome AABBDD) produced by a cross between durum wheat (AABB) and wild goat grass (DD) showed partial non-domestication-related phenotypes due to genetic effects of the wild goat grass genome. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting wheat domestication-related spike characters including spike threshability, rachis fragility and spike compactness were investigated in F2 progeny of a cross between Chinese Spring (CS) wheat (AABBDD) and S-6214. Of 15 relevant QTLs identified, eight seemed to be consistent with peaks previously reported in wheat, while four QTL regions were novel. Four QTLs that affected spike threshability were localized to chromosomes 2BS, 2DS, 4D and 5DS. The QTL on 2DS probably represents the tenacious glume gene, Tg-D1. Based on its map position, the QTL located on 2BS coincides with Ppd-B1 and seems to be a homoeolocus of the soft glume gene. Two novel QTLs were detected on 4D and 5DS, and their goat grass alleles increased glume tenacity. Three novel QTLs located on 2DL, 3DL and 4D for rachis fragility were found. Based on the map position, the QTL on 3DL seems different from Br1 and Br2 loci and its CS allele appears to promote the generation of barrel-type diaspores. Three disarticulation types of spikelets were found in F2 individuals: wedge-type, barrel-type and both types. Among eight QTL peaks that governed spike morphology, six, located on 2AS, 2BS, 2DS, 4AL and 5AL, coincided with ones previously reported. A QTL for spike compactness on 5AL was distinct from the Q gene. A novel QTL that controls spike length was detected on 5DL. Complex genetic interactions between genetic background and the action of each gene were suggested.

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