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ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015 Jan 21;6(1):155-62. doi: 10.1021/cn500262x. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Differential influence of dopamine transport rate on the potencies of cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine , Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, United States.

Abstract

Dopamine transporter (DAT) levels vary across brain regions and individuals, and are altered by drug history and disease states; however, the impact of altered DAT expression on psychostimulant effects in brain has not been systematically explored. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured the effects of elevated DAT levels on presynaptic dopamine parameters as well as the uptake inhibition potency of the blockers cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) and the releaser amphetamine (AMPH) in the nucleus accumbens core. Here we found that increases in DAT levels, resulting from either genetic overexpression or MPH self-administration, caused markedly increased maximal rates of uptake (Vmax) that were positively correlated with the uptake inhibition potency of AMPH and MPH, but not cocaine. AMPH and MPH were particularly sensitive to DAT changes, with a 100% increase in Vmax resulting in a 200% increase in potency. The relationship between Vmax and MPH potency was the same as that for AMPH, but was different from that for cocaine, indicating that MPH more closely resembles a releaser with regard to uptake inhibition. Conversely, the effects of MPH on stimulated dopamine release were similar to those of cocaine, with inverted U-shaped increases in release over a concentration-response curve. This was strikingly different from the release profile of AMPH, which showed only reductions at high concentrations, indicating that MPH is not a pure releaser. These data indicate that although MPH is a DAT blocker, its uptake-inhibitory actions are affected by DAT changes in a similar manner to releasers. Together, these data show that fluctuations in DAT levels alter the potency of releasers and MPH but not blockers and suggest an integral role of the DAT in the addictive potential of AMPH and related compounds.

KEYWORDS:

Dopamine transporter; addiction; amphetamine; cocaine; methylphenidate; voltammetry

PMID:
25474655
PMCID:
PMC4304485
DOI:
10.1021/cn500262x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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