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PLoS Comput Biol. 2014 Dec 4;10(12):e1003957. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003957. eCollection 2014 Dec.

Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-city, Saitama, Japan.
2
Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan.
3
Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan; Division of Bio-Imaging, Proteo-Science Center (PROS), Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan; Translational Research Center, Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan.
4
Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-city, Saitama, Japan; Division of Bio-Imaging, Proteo-Science Center (PROS), Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan; Translational Research Center, Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime, Japan.

Abstract

In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1) fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1) notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of the pathophysiological tissue growth mode.

PMID:
25474567
PMCID:
PMC4256085
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003957
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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