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Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2014 Nov 21;7:421-35. doi: 10.2147/IJNRD.S42924. eCollection 2014.

Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation.

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Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.


Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique.


BOLD MRI; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; contrast-associated nephropathy; diabetes mellitus; hypoxia; kidney; oxygenation

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