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Intelligence. 2010 Jul;38(4):385-392.

More than just IQ: A longitudinal examination of self-perceived abilities as predictors of academic performance in a large sample of UK twins.

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Goldsmiths, University of London, Department of Psychology, New Cross, SE14 6NW, United Kingdom.
Mind Research Network, 1101 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA.
King's College London, MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, United Kingdom.


This paper examines the longitudinal causal relationship between self-perceived abilities (SPA) and academic achievement (Ach) while controlling for cognitive ability (CA). In all, 5957 UK school children were assessed on SPA, Ach and CA at ages 9 and 12. Results indicated that SPA and Ach at age 9 independently affected both SPA and Ach at age 12, even when CA was considered. Moreover the effects of previous Ach on subsequent SPA were of similar magnitude to the effects of prior SPA on subsequent Ach, suggesting that the link between SPA and Ach independent of CA is reflective of both "insight" (children's accounts of their previous performance) and self-efficacy (the self-fulfilling or motivational effects of self-beliefs). Practical and theoretical implications for the study of SPA are discussed.


Academic achievement; Intellectual competence; Intelligence; Motivation; Self-assessed intelligence; Self-perceived abilities

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