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Curr Mol Med. 2014;14(10):1331-8.

Allopolyploidization is not so simple: evidence from the origin of the tribe Cyprinini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

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1
Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, Yunnan, China. zhangyp@mail.kiz.ac.cn.

Abstract

The identification of allopolyploidization events benefits from molecular dating and divergence assessments of progenitor genomes. Information on gene duplications only, either orthologs or paralogs, provides incomplete information. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA yield insights into matrilineal history, which may differ from patrilineal evolution. Two important food and pet fishes, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), appear to have experienced allotetraploidization sometime from 12 to 20 million years ago (Ma). However, much work is necessary to detail the initial polyploidization event. Herein, we use this group of fishes as a model system to investigate competing scenarios for allopolyploidization. We analyze both the nuclear genes encoding growth hormone (GH), recombination activating protein 1 (RAG1) and HOXA2B gene, and the maternal heredited 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding gene in 19 species of cyprinids and use two species in Balitoridae as outgroup taxa. Our analyses clarify the phylogenetic position of the paternal and maternal ancestors for the common carp and goldfish. The estimation of matrilineal divergence (10.71-12.42 Ma) is significantly younger than the dates of the parental ancestor divergedthat obtained by nuclear genes (16.62-19.64 Ma). Analyses of both genomes date the allopolyploidization event of the common ancestor of Cy. carpio and Ca sp. to about 10.71-12.42 Ma, which is most likely represented by maternal divergent time. The divergence of the two copies of the nuclear genes which was more ancient than the maternal markers might have been included the divergence of the progenitors' genome divergence when the allopolyploidization event occurred. Thus, the scenarios of allopolyploidzation for this group of fish can be suggested as the following: the matrilineal common ancestor of species in tribe Cyprinini might have doubled its genome by mating with a paternal ancestor in the subfamily Cyprininae, which was a sister-group that diverged around 4.20-8.93 Ma. Our work provides new evidence for the divergence dates of allopolyploidization within the Cyprinini, and documents the necessity of considering both matrilineal and patrilineal histories when investigating allopolyploidization.

PMID:
25470283
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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