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Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015 Apr;50(4):E9-12. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23140. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

Treating dyspnea with morphine sulfate in nonverbal children with neurological impairment.

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Boston Children's Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, Massachussetts.


Children with severe neurological impairment (NI) are at risk for recurrent respiratory illness with risk for associated distressing respiratory symptoms as respiratory exacerbations become more frequent. Evidence for treating dyspnea in adults with severe pulmonary disease offers interventions for consideration, including morphine sulfate. This case series of four individuals with severe NI reviews the benefit from morphine for respiratory distress. Information includes descriptors of distress, starting dose, and dose increases. This is the first report to review the use of morphine for the treatment of dyspnea in nonverbal children with severe impairment of the central nervous system.


children; dyspnea; morphine; neurological impairment; respiratory distress

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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