Send to

Choose Destination
Nutrition. 2015 Jan;31(1):160-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.013. Epub 2014 Jul 19.

Dietary vitamin D intake and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan.

Author information

Department of Public Health, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan. Electronic address:
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Department of Health Promotion, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, Japan.
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Health Tourism Research Center, Graduate School of Tourism Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.



Although the relationship between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms has been explored, the results are inconsistent. Epidemiologic evidence concerning the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and depressive symptoms in pregnancy is nonexistent. The aim of this current cross-sectional study was to examine this issue in Japan.


The study included 1745 pregnant women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when women had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, body mass index, intake of saturated fatty acids, and intake of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid.


The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Higher dietary vitamin D intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, independent of potential dietary and nondietary confounding factors. Multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms during pregnancy in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of assessed intake of vitamin D were 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55-1.11), 0.73 (0.49-1.07), and 0.52 (0.30-0.89), respectively (P for trend = 0.02).


The current cross-sectional study in Japan suggests that higher vitamin D intake may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.


Depressive symptoms; Intake; Japanese; Pregnancy; Vitamin D

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center