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Neural Netw. 2015 Jan;61:85-117. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Deep learning in neural networks: an overview.

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Swiss AI Lab IDSIA, Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sull'Intelligenza Artificiale, University of Lugano & SUPSI, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.


In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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