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J Plant Physiol. 2015 Jan 15;173:82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2014.09.004. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Endogenous factors regulating poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering in pharbitis: The involvement of metabolic pathways regulated by aminooxyacetic acid.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-2181, Japan; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-2181, Japan. Electronic address: wada-403@qj9.so-net.ne.jp.

Abstract

The short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory), Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil), was induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress. This stress-induced flowering was inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), which is a known inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocycropropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and thus regulates endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA), IAA and polyamine (PA). Stress treatment increased PAL activity in cotyledons, and AOA suppressed this increase. The observed PAL activity and flowering response correlate positively, indicating that AOA functions as a PAL inhibitor. The inhibition of stress-induced flowering by AOA was also overcome by IAA. An antiauxin, 4-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid, inhibited stress-induced flowering. Both SA and IAA promoted flowering induced by stress. PA also promoted flowering, and the effective PA was found to be putrescine (Put). These results suggest that all of the pathways leading to the synthesis of SA, IAA and Put are responsive to the flowering inhibition by AOA and that these endogenous factors may be involved in the regulation of stress-induced flowering. However, as none of them induced flowering under non-stress conditions, they may function cooperatively to promote flowering.

KEYWORDS:

Indole-3-acetic acid; Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Polyamine; Salicylic acid; Stress-induced flowering

PMID:
25462081
DOI:
10.1016/j.jplph.2014.09.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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