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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Nov;38(3):838-44. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.09.004. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Immunotoxicity effects of carbaryl in vivo and in vitro.

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Fatemeh Zahra Infertility Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
Department of Immunology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
Department of Immunology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. Electronic address:
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
Medical School, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.


Carbaryl is a pesticide for controlling pests in agricultural industry. To determine of immunotoxicity effects of carbaryl, rats were exposure with carbaryl for 28 days. The lymphoid organ weight, lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines level were measured, respectively. Exposure with carbaryl significantly reduced both thymus and spleen weight and also suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. In addition, carbaryl significantly decreased IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-1β and TNF-α and also increased IL-4, IL-10 cytokines. These findings suggest that exposure to carbaryl can induce immunotoxicity effects on lymphoid organ weight, suppresses the functions of lymphocyte and macrophage, Th2 polarization in Th1/Th2 balance by reducing of IFN-γ and increasing of IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines. Therefore, carbaryl can contribute to the development of allergic, autoimmune, cancer or infection diseases through immunotoxicity effects and unbalancing of Th1/Th2 immune response however, further study is necessary.


Carbaryl; Cytokines; Immunotoxicity; Lymphocyte; Macrophage; Th1/Th2

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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