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Cytokine. 2015 Feb;71(2):132-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2014.09.012. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Supplemental vitamin D increases serum cytokines in those with initially low 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

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The Physiology Research Laboratory, The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, UT 84107, USA. Electronic address:
The Physiology Research Laboratory, The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, UT 84107, USA.
Research and Development, USANA Health Sciences, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84120, USA.
Hyperbaric Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, UT 84107, USA; LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT 84143, USA; School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.


The purpose of this study was to determine if vitamin D status before supplementation influences the cytokine response after supplemental vitamin D. Forty-six reportedly healthy adults (mean(SD); age, 32(7) y; body mass index (BMI), 25.3(4.5) kg/m(2); serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 34.8(12.2) ng/mL) were randomly assigned (double blind) to one of three groups: (1) placebo (n=15), or supplemental vitamin D (cholecalciferol) at (2) 4000 (n=14) or (3) 8000IU (n=17). Supplements were taken daily for 35days. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Baseline, Bsl) and 35-days after (35-d) supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D), cytokines, and intact parathyroid hormone with calcium were measured in each blood sample. Supplemental vitamin D increased serum 25(OH)D (4000IU, ≈29%; 8000IU, ≈57%) and 1,25(OH)D (4000IU, ≈12%; 8000IU, ≈38%) without altering intact parathyroid hormone or calcium. The vitamin D metabolite increases in the supplemental vitamin D groups (n=31) were dependent on initial levels as serum 25(OH)D (r=-0.63, p<0.05) and 1,25(OH)D (r=-0.45, p<0.05) at Bsl correlated with their increases after supplementation. Supplemental vitamin D increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 in subjects that were vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH)D<29ng/mL) compared to sufficient (serum 25(OH)D⩾30ng/mL) at Bsl. We conclude that supplemental vitamin D increase a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine in those with initially low serum 25(OH)D.


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D; Interferon-γ; Interleukin-10; Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

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