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Nitric Oxide. 2015 Jan 30;44:31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2014.11.009. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Dietary nitrite supplementation improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic KKA(y) mice.

Author information

1
Division of Pathophysiology, Department of Clinical Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Josai University, Saitama, Japan.
2
Department of Food and Nutritional Environment, College of Human Life and Environment, Kinjo Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan.
3
Division of Oral Anatomy, Department of Human Development and Fostering, Meikai University School of Dentistry, Saitama, Japan.
4
Division of Pathophysiology, Department of Clinical Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Josai University, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address: junkoba@josai.ac.jp.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Because insulin signaling is essential for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) production, the loss of bioavailable NO might be a common molecular mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Although dietary nitrite acts as a substrate for systemic NO generation, thereby serving as a physiological alternative source of NO for signaling, it is not precisely known how dietary nitrite affects type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we report the therapeutic effects of dietary nitrite on the metabolic and histological features of KKA(y) diabetic mice.

METHODS:

KKA(y) mice were divided into three groups (without nitrite, and with 50 mg/L and 150 mg/L nitrite in drinking water), and two groups of C57BL/6J mice served as controls (without nitrite and with 150 mg/L nitrite in drinking water). After 10 weeks, blood samples, visceral adipose tissues, and gastrocnemius muscles were collected after a 16-hour fast to assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels, the histology of the adipose tissue, insulin-stimulated sequential signaling to glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and nitrite and nitrate contents in the muscle using an HPLC system.

RESULTS:

KKA(y) mice developed obesity with enhanced fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin and exhibited increased HOMA-IR scores compared with the C57BL/6J control mice. Dietary nitrite dose-dependently reduced the size of the hypertrophic adipocytes and TNF-α transcription in the adipose tissue of KKA(y) diabetic mice, which also restored the insulin-mediated signal transduction, including p85 and Akt phosphorylation, and subsequently restored the GLUT4 expression in the skeletal muscles.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that dietary nitrite provides an alternative source of NO, and subsequently improves the insulin-mediated signaling and the metabolic and histological features in KKA(y) diabetic mice.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary nitrite/nitrate; Glucose transporter 4; Insulin resistance; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

PMID:
25461271
DOI:
10.1016/j.niox.2014.11.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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