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Sci Total Environ. 2015 Feb 1;505:350-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.084. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Distribution and molecular characterization of genes encoding CTX-M and AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolated from an Indian urban aquatic environment.

Author information

1
Microbial Pathogenicity Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021, India.
2
Microbial Pathogenicity Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021, India. Electronic address: virdi_dusc@rediffmail.com.

Abstract

Aquatic environments harboring antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli constitute an important public health concern. Thus, it is important to characterize the resistance genetic elements of waterborne E. coli. It is also important to identify the predominant clonal groups/phylogroups represented by resistant strains to understand the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant E. coli in natural environments, and to identify the role of well-established genotypes in the spread of resistance in a particular geographical area through natural environments. In the present investigation, E. coli strains (n=126) isolated from various points along the river Yamuna traversing through the National Capital Territory of Delhi (India) were grouped phylogenetically. A collection of 61 strains representing all phylogroups was investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC production. blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes were detected and analyzed, promoter/attenuator mutations associated with chromosomally-mediated AmpC overexpression were identified, and plasmid-mediated ampC was determined. blaTEM was the most widespread (100%) gene followed by bla(CTX-M) (16%), and plasmid-mediated ampC (3%). bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(CMY-42) were identified as the genes encoding CTX-M type ESBL and CIT type AmpC β-lactamases, respectively. CTX-M-15 ESBL phenotype was most common in phylogroup D (50%), followed by phylogroups B1 (30%), and A (20%). E. coli that produce plasmid-mediated AmpC were rare and present only in phylogroup D. Presence of multi β-lactam resistance, bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(CMY-42) in waterborne E. coli belonging to virulence-associated phylogroup D highlights the need for routine surveillance of resistance determinants in aquatic environments. This is also the first report for the presence of bla(CMY-42) in waterborne E. coli.

KEYWORDS:

AmpC; Escherichia coli; Phylogroups; Wastewater; bla(CTX-M-15)

PMID:
25461036
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.084
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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