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Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2015 Feb 5;136 Pt B:1038-46. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.127. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS).

Author information

1
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Fez, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, BP 2202 - Route Imouzzer, Fez, Morocco. Electronic address: lat.hajji@gmail.com.
2
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Fez, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, BP 2202 - Route Imouzzer, Fez, Morocco.
3
Aix-Marseille University, Laboratory of Environment Chemistry, Équipe MPO, Europôle de l'Arbois, Bât. Villemin BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 4, France.
4
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, FCT, Centro de Física Atómica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

Abstract

The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm(-1), assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric CO stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities.

KEYWORDS:

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; Conservation–restoration; Paper; Scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry; X-ray diffraction

PMID:
25459630
DOI:
10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.127
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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