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Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Mar;65(3):412-24. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.016. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Healthy lifestyle and risk of kidney disease progression, atherosclerotic events, and death in CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: aricar2@uic.edu.
2
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA.
3
Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL; Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
5
Renal, Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
6
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD.
7
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
8
Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, CA.
9
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
10
Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.
11
Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In general populations, healthy lifestyle is associated with fewer adverse outcomes. We estimated the degree to which adherence to a healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of renal and cardiovascular events among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

STUDY DESIGN:

Prospective cohort.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

3,006 adults enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

PREDICTORS:

4 lifestyle factors (regular physical activity, body mass index [BMI] of 20-<25kg/m(2), nonsmoking, and "healthy diet"), individually and in combination.

OUTCOMES:

CKD progression (50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage renal disease), atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease), and all-cause mortality.

MEASUREMENTS:

Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards.

RESULTS:

During a median follow-up of 4 years, we observed 726 CKD progression events, 355 atherosclerotic events, and 437 deaths. BMI≥25kg/m(2) and nonsmoking were associated with reduced risk of CKD progression (HRs of 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.97] and 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.82] for BMIs of 25 to <30 and ≥30kg/m(2), respectively, versus 20 to <25kg/m(2); HR for nonsmoking of 0.68 [95% CI, 0.55-0.84] compared to the current smoker reference group) and reduced risk of atherosclerotic events (HRs of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96] for BMI of 25-<30 vs 20-<25kg/m(2) and 0.55 [95% CI, 0.40-0.75] vs current smoker). Factors associated with reduced all-cause mortality were regular physical activity (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.79] vs inactive), BMI≥30kg/m(2) (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.96] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)), and nonsmoking (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.34-0.60] vs current smoker). BMI<20kg/m(2) was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.13-3.93] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)). Adherence to all 4 lifestyle factors was associated with a 68% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to adherence to no lifestyle factors (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.89).

LIMITATIONS:

Lifestyle factors were measured only once.

CONCLUSIONS:

Regular physical activity, nonsmoking, and BMI≥25kg/m(2) were associated with lower risk of adverse outcomes in this cohort of individuals with CKD.

KEYWORDS:

CKD progression; Chronic kidney disease (CKD); body mass index (BMI); cardiovascular events; diet; healthy lifestyle; lifestyle modification; modifiable risk factor; mortality; physical activity; renal disease trajectory; smoking

PMID:
25458663
PMCID:
PMC4339665
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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