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Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Apr;65(4):574-82. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.015. Epub 2014 Nov 21.

Effect of CKD and dialysis modality on exposure to drugs cleared by nonrenal mechanisms.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
2
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA.
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
4
Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.
5
Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: brad.urquhart@schulich.uwo.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Patients with kidney disease frequently experience adverse effects from medication exposure, even when drugs are cleared by nonrenal pathways. Although many studies suggest that nonrenal drug clearance is decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), there remains a paucity of in vivo studies in patients with varying degrees of decreased kidney function and those comparing the impact of dialysis modality (eg, hemodialysis [HD] and peritoneal dialysis [PD]).

STUDY DESIGN:

We performed in vivo clinical pharmacokinetic studies of midazolam, a nonrenally cleared specific probe for CYP3A4, and fexofenadine, a nonspecific probe for hepatic and intestinal transporters.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

Healthy controls (n=8), patients with non-dialysis-dependent (NDD)-CKD (n=8), and patients receiving HD (n=10) or PD (n=8).

OUTCOMES:

Exposure to midazolam and fexofenadine were quantified using area under the curve (AUC). Comprehensive pharmacokinetic parameters also were calculated for both probes.

RESULTS:

Midazolam AUC was significantly higher in the HD group (382.8 h·ng/mL) than in the healthy-control (63.0 h·ng/mL; P<0.001), NDD-CKD (84.5 h·ng/mL; P=0.002), and PD (47.4 h·ng/mL; P<0.001) groups. Fexofenadine AUC was significantly higher in each of the NDD-CKD (2,950 h·ng/mL; P=0.003), HD (2,327 h·ng/mL; P=0.01), and PD (2,095 h·ng/mL; P=0.04) groups compared with healthy controls (1,008 h·ng/mL).

LIMITATIONS:

Small study groups had different proportions of diabetic patients, early stages of CKD not available.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that selection of dialysis modality is a major determinant of exposure to the CYP3A4 probe midazolam. Exposure to the intestinal and hepatic transporter probe fexofenadine is altered in patients with NDD-CKD and PD and HD patients. Thus, drug development and licensing of nonrenally cleared drugs should include evaluation in these 3 patient groups, with these results included in approved product information labeling. This reinforces the critical need for more in vivo studies of humans that evaluate the exposure to drugs cleared by these pathways.

KEYWORDS:

CYP3A4; Nonrenal drug clearance; adverse effects; chronic kidney disease (CKD); cytochrome P450; drug metabolism; hemodialysis (HD); hepatic and intestinal drug transporters; medication exposure; peritoneal dialysis (PD); pharmacokinetics

PMID:
25453994
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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