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Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 15;92(4):651-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.09.023. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Cytohesin 2/ARF6 regulates preadipocyte migration through the activation of ERK1/2.

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Institute of Life Science 1, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.
Institute of Life Science 1, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. Electronic address:


Preadipocyte migration is vital for the development of adipose tissue, which plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) small GTPase, which regulates membrane trafficking, is activated by GTP-exchange factors (GEFs) such as cytohesin 2. Cytohesin 2 and ARF6 have previously been implicated in the regulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte migration. We investigated here the molecular mechanism underlying the cytohesin 2 and ARF6 mediated regulation of preadipocyte migration. Preadipocyte migration and the activation of ARF6 and ERK1/2 were studied by using a number of approaches, including pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA and the inhibitory peptides. The siRNA mediated down regulation of ARF6 and cytohesin 2 expression confirmed the requirement of both for migration of preadipocytes. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) have also found to be essential for the cytohesin 2/ARF6 induced preadipocyte migration. Pharmacological inhibition of the activation of ARF6, ERK1/2 or dynamin led to significant reduction in migration of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, our study revealed the activation of ARF6 and ERK1/2 during migration of preadipocytes. In the migrating preadipocytes, ARF6 activation was inhibited with SecinH3 (cytohesin inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) whereas the ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited with SecinH3, LY294002, PBP10 (a PIP2 sequester peptide) and PD98059 (MAPKK inhibitor). However, dynosore (dynamin inhibitor) had inhibited neither ARF6 activation nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation during preadipocyte migration. These results together suggest that cytohesin 2 activates ARF6 in a PI3K dependent manner and then the active ARF6 causes phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during preadipocyte migration.


ARF6; BFA; Cytohesin 2; Dynamin; Dynasore; ERK; LY294002; PBP10; PD98059; Preadipocytes migration; QS11; SecinH3

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